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Around Reston

September 14, 1998

Employment, Commerce, and Education Committee Final Report

I. Introduction

The Employment, Commerce and Education Committee was one of seven committees formed as part of the Reston 2000 Task Force in early 1998 to examine the future of the Reston community and to assess impacts of current and anticipated trends on that future. The committee consisted of a diverse group of people, each of whom had a direct interest in or involvement with education or economic development in Reston, and brought to the committee�s collective efforts valued perspectives and expertise. Additional perspectives and expertise were shared with the committee by representatives of the following organizations, to whom the committee expresses its sincere gratitude: Area III of the Fairfax County Public School System, Fairfax County Offices of Management and Budget, Comprehensive Planning, and Human Services, Greater Reston and Fairfax County Chambers of Commerce, and the Fairfax County Economic Development Authority. Additionally, the committee independently conducted considerable research from a number of sources (some of which will be identified in the body of this report, and the balance of which can be found in references in the informational appendix).

 While members of the committee may have had a direct interest in the education and economic development of the Reston community, each of us has at least an indirect interest in these issues, regardless of whether or not we have children presently being educated in Reston schools, or employment presently within Reston�s boundaries. For these issues are crucial to the vitality of the community and to the continuing successful implementation of the vision of Reston as a community where people can live and work. To that end, we offer the following goals and objectives, and some possible methods of achieving them, for the community. But foremost among our objectives is the recognition that, if it is to be truly valuable to the community, the output of the Reston 2000 Task Force is best viewed less as a product in and of itself, and more as part of a continuing process of healthy self-examination and evaluation. Thus seen, this report is not the end, or even the beginning of the end, of Reston 2000; rather, it is the end of the beginning.

 II. Goals

Recognizing that our focus was on two discrete, but inextricably linked, themes, the committee recommended, and the Task Force adopted, the following goal statements:


To assure that a comprehensive set of high-quality educational services, facilities and programs are available to meet student and community needs in a manner that facilitates life-long learning by the entire Reston community.

To sustain and grow Reston as a major regional job and employment center while maintaining the quality of life for all that defines and distinguishes the Reston community in both national and international arenas.

A few words about each of these goal statements: with respect to education, we believe it important to recognize that, although the direct outputs of an educational process are the students that have been taught by it, the entire community is a customer of that process and has a stake in its effectiveness. Consequently, a quality educational system must address the needs of the entire community of which it is part, as well as the student community that is the recipient of its programs and services. Especially in an era increasingly defined, if not driven, by access to and use of information, that broader community must be one that has learned how to learn, and that engages in the act of learning continuously, throughout their lives. With respect to employment and commerce, we believe it important to recognize and seek to maintain Reston�s status as an employment and job center. The language to that effect in the goal statement was chosen by the Task Force in an attempt to reflect as accurately as possible the nature of that status, which is today truly international. And because it is the quality of life of this community that has, in large measure, enabled it to attain that status, our goal for the future must include its preservation.

 III. Objectives

Education is vital to economic prosperity, and maintaining a quality educational system is key to Reston�s continuing economic success. In a similar manner, a thriving economy provides the basis for a sound educational system, enabling the financial support necessary to attract and retain talented educators and administrators, and to maintain the investment necessary to enhance the community�s intellectual power and skill. Consequently, the objectives for achieving the recommended goals are stated below in support of both goal statements, rather than in support of a single particular goal. In the following sections, we will examine the rationale for these recommended objectives, and some possible methods to achieve them, in more detail. But we emphasize � again � that in our view, the process of periodic, community-wide review of these objectives and of the measures employed to achieve them is a necessary ingredient of any forward-looking plan.

  1. Provide an educational environment that promotes community involvement, employment readiness, workforce training, continuous learning, and citizenship preparation 
  2. Develop programs for educational support and employment opportunity to support the broad spectrum of needs of a diverse community 
  3. Encourage and support integration and coordination among providers of educational services and facilities 
  4. Ensure that access to information technology and learning tools, and the capability to use them, is available to all users, both teachers and learners 
  5. Assure that a wide range of employment opportunities continues to be available to the entire community 
  6. Maintain and improve the infrastructure of transportation, facilities, technology and research that supports economic development and employment and educational opportunities  
  7. Encourage the adoption of policies on the local, state and national levels, including appropriate collaboration and shared responsibility among jurisdictions, that promote continuing economic development and employment and educational opportunities, and the maintenance and improvement of the fiscal health of the community, the region and the commonwealth

IV. Observations, Assessments and Recommendations

A. Overview

Education: Generally recognized as one of this community�s strengths, the Fairfax County Public School system is among the premier public school systems in the nation. FCPS is today the predominant provider of educational services, facilities and programs in Reston; there are, in addition, a number of private facilities and programs, particularly at the pre-kindergarten level and in specialized services. Both educational (Fairfax County Public Schools 1997 Community Accountability Report) and business (Fairfax County Economic Development Authority) sources recognize that a high quality educational system is critical to the maintenance of continuing economic prosperity. Education is an essential ingredient in an information-driven economy, and it has become necessary as such an economy has evolved that education be part of a continuous life-long process. This process involves more than traditional public or private schools, particularly as employer-sponsored or provided training and re-training have grown in scope and significance.

There are significant (nearly $65M) infrastructure needs of Reston-area schools in FCPS, and that is only in the relatively near term. Additionally, many changes are under way � new state-wide standards have been introduced in the past two years, tests at the conclusion of 3rd, 5th and 8th grades and end-of-course in high school were administered for the first time last spring, some FCPS year-round schools commenced this fall, and FCPS is implementing its own 21st century initiative. All of this is occurring even as what might be called a national debate over education standards and methods is being suggested.

FCPS faces a complex and challenging environment � there are more students in FCPS (152,000) than there are people (135,000) in Loudoun County, the fastest growing county in the region and by some accounts the entire nation. The preponderance of the recent growth in the student population has occurred in those with special needs, such as English as a Second Language. This is indicative of and consistent with the growing diversity of Fairfax County itself.

Employment and Commerce: Reston�s strengths have produced an enviable economic situation � 12.3M square feet of office space, a vacancy rate of only 2.7%, more than 2500 businesses employing in excess of 40,000 employees, and needing still more. Much of the nature of that growth reflects the technology-based nature of today�s employee base; by some accounts, Northern Virginia � with Reston at the core � is the internet capital of the world. In fact, as this report was being prepared, a study was released that portrayed the region�s burgeoning information technology industry as nearly equal in size to the area�s federal workforce, long considered its economic cornerstone. The study portrays the region, and predominantly Northern Virginia, as the global center of a converging group of three industry sectors � communications, content and computing/systems integration � linked by internet services and products, which it dubs the "Infocomm Cluster."

Projections for future employment growth by the Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments show an increase of more than 153,000 jobs in the Dulles corridor by the year 2020. Reston Town Center is one of only three areas (the others are the area immediately surrounding Dulles airport and the Tysons Corner core) showing increases of more than 8,000.

A few trends are evident from analyzing this data, these projections, and the nature of the region�s development to date. The gross regional product, the total output of the economy of the Washington metropolitan area, has doubled in size over the past 25 years, to the point that it is today one-half the size of the entire economy of Africa. Over that period of time, the Northern Virginia share of that measure has doubled � from 20% in 1970 to 40% in 1997 � while Maryland�s has remained steady at 33%, and the District�s has diminished from 38% to below 20%. One consequence of that trend is that, by approximately 2003, Fairfax County will replace the District as the largest single contributor to the regional economy.

The nature of employment reflected in these figures is increasingly private and decreasingly federal, with state and local governments maintaining a relatively constant level. That equates to nearly 1 and one-half million new jobs in the private sector, and in the past five years that job creation has been especially robust in Northern Virginia, where nearly 2.2 new jobs were created for every one job in Maryland. Last year alone, the increase of 47,000 jobs in the region was attributable to 52,000 new private sector jobs coupled with the loss of 5,000 federal jobs.

The largest amount of this growth is occurring in the services sector, including health, education, management, engineering and business support, which accounted last year for 46% of all private sector jobs but 69% of total job growth. Against this backdrop, the recent increase in office construction can be understood as the market reaction to this type of economic growth, since the services industry is the predominant consumer of office space.

Jobs are projected to continue to grow annually through 2020, but the current 4% annual rate of growth is expected to begin to slow to 1.5%. This translates to annual increases in Fairfax County of roughly 18,000, resulting in a total by 2020 of in excess of 1 million jobs (from today�s 632,000). As noted previously, more than 40% of that growth is expected to occur in the Dulles corridor.

While current economic prosperity is robust and vigorous, it is not guaranteed. Reston needs to institute measures to continue to attract and to retain employers and jobs providing a full range of economic opportunities for the community. As the nature of the community continues to change and evolve, the nature of this responsibility will do likewise; consequently, we believe it is one best shared by the community � see recommendation number 3 in section C, infra.

B. Assessments and Observations: The rationale for each of the committee�s and the Task Force�s recommended objectives follows.

  1. Provide an educational environment that promotes community involvement, employment readiness, workforce training, continuous learning, and citizenship preparation
  2. In order to assure that continuing employment opportunities are provided by 21st century employers, a world-class educational system is required; it must be one that includes pre-kindergarten through graduate school as well as continuing education and training programs. Especially in an information-driven, globally-competitive economy, the learning process needs to be continuous and responsive to change. Moreover, the providers of education need to prepare and enable their students to learn, and to be fully participating members of the community. The public school system in Fairfax County is enviable and well-respected, but it cannot rest on the laurels of past accomplishments and reputation � it must adapt to the challenges of the present and future.

     To this end, we recommend that the community promote partnerships between its schools and area businesses, government agencies, civic associations, and other entities. These affiliations can build on the many successful partnerships currently in existence, and can leverage the strengths of the participating organizations to address educational needs of the 21st century. We also recommend that better linkages be established between traditional and non-traditional (e.g., employer training) educational provider organizations and between the academic and broader communities, and that libraries be included as more directly-linked components of the educational process at all levels. Finally, we support the concept that rigorous academic and behavior-oriented standards be elements of the educational process. High academic standards will help produce the knowledge workers of the future, and standards of respect and responsibility (sometimes acknowledged as the fourth and fifth "R�s") will help produce responsible citizens of the future.

  3. Develop programs for educational support and employment opportunity to support the broad spectrum of needs of a diverse community
  4. The changing demographics of school-age children are well demonstrated in the FCPS Area III utilization charts attached as Appendix B and elsewhere (for example, Fairfax County OMB data). Similarly, the necessity of addressing the special needs associated with this population is well-documented (see for example the FY1999 budget plan). But as critical as it will be to address these needs, we cannot focus on special needs only; we must also include the capability of addressing the needs of general populace even if they may not fit a special need profile. Our recommendations 1 and 2 in section C are two possible methods that might be considered to achieve this objective.

  5. Encourage and support integration and coordination among providers of educational services and facilities
  6. Recently, a committee of educators, administrators, parents, business and community representatives, and others interested in integrating and coordinating South Lakes High and Langston Hughes Middle Schools engaged in a-year-long investigation of methods to create a Model Campus for the two schools. One of the committee�s recommendations � the coordination of existing resources and facilities � while hardly radical and perhaps even obvious, is far more easily stated than implemented. Nevertheless, in order that transitions between and among various stations in the educational process occur more seamlessly, such coordination is essential. Accomplishing it initially throughout the FCPS pyramid serving Reston, and subsequently among all providers of educational services, would, we believe, benefit the community greatly.

    There are a number of methods through which such coordination might be achieved. Rather than recommend any particular approach, we have chosen to recommend the broader objective, and to engage the community in a search for the preferred method of its achievement.

  7. Ensure that access to information technology and learning tools, and the capability to use them, is available to all users, both teachers and learners
  8. Technological developments have an impact on matters as fundamental as where people live, learn and work. Today, most Restonians move at one point in the day from one building (their home) to another (their school or workplace) only to reverse the pattern at a later point in the day. Quite ordinary in the late 20th century, this pattern may become as extraordinary in the future as it would have been in the pre-industrial era. The future of cities, homes, schools, offices and communities will certainly change as cheaper, more robust and more easily accessed communication services proliferate, and as access to information in all its forms is made more convenient. This technological change will almost certainly be beneficial to future Restonians, although, like any tool, it can be used for ill as well as for good. The difference may well depend on what knowledge and information people are able, and choose, to acquire and how they use it. It becomes essential, then, that they be as fully capable of making that determination as possible.

    There is growing concern that existing information access gaps between society�s "haves" and "have-nots" may actually increase. The consequences of economically disparate classes of society becoming even further polarized by differences in information access are assuredly not positive. Among the needs that need to be addressed in this respect are the infrastructure improvements for Reston area schools cited in the CIP budget, and the need for strengthened partnerships between Reston educational institutions and businesses, faith communities, civic associations and other potential sources to bridge gaps.

  9. Assure that a wide range of employment opportunities continues to be available to the entire community
  10. Well documented workforce gaps exist even as job creation continues; most accounts today put the current number in the region at approximately 20,000. This is in some measure attributable to the changing nature of jobs and employment as a function of improvements in technology and changes in the workplace � downsizing contemporaneous with job growth, and the changing nature of the employment relationship itself. There is also an increasing demand for service-sector workers created by growth in white-collar jobs (restaurants, hotels, lawn care, auto service, etc.). Methods to address these gaps and to maintain a wide range of employment opportunities, such as our recommendation number 1, need to be implemented.

  11. Maintain and improve the infrastructure of transportation, facilities, technology and research that supports economic development and employment and educational opportunities
  12. In addition to rail to Dulles and other critical transportation needs, other infrastructure improvements are vital to economic prosperity and educational opportunity. Consequently, the community must continue to invest in physical plant renovation and expansion for schools and libraries, in wiring, computer, and other technology improvements in public facilities, and in similar areas.

  13. Encourage the adoption of policies on the local, state and national levels that promote continuing economic development and employment and educational opportunities, including appropriate collaboration and shared responsibility among jurisdictions, and the maintenance and improvement of the fiscal health of the community, the region and the commonwealth

The funding and financing of Reston�s and the region�s transportation, higher education and revitalization efforts depends on an enlightened and progressive set of policies that encourages sensible growth. This certainly includes tax policies at all levels of government that recognize and account for the responsibilities that are appropriately shared, both politically and geographically. Implicit in this objective is the recognition that these policies need to be more than merely adopted � they also need to be carefully implemented.

C. Recommendations and Rationale: The following specific recommendations were developed by the committee as possible methods to maintain and enhance the Reston community�s educational and employment opportunities and to implement foundations for future success. A brief description of why the committee thought these recommendations could be beneficial to the community is also stated.

1. Establish a not-for-profit institution (e.g., the Reston Opportunity Foundation) comprised of businesses, social service agencies, faith communities, civic associations, etc. to identify target populations of unemployed and underemployed residents and work together to find ways through remedial education, training, services, and employer outreach to assimilate these residents into the economic system

As previously noted, workforce gaps have been documented by both local (FCCC, GRCC), state-wide (VA task force) and national (U.S. Department of Education) organizations. As this report was being prepared, the establishment of a program known as Tekaid, a 14-week computer skills training program organized by Mitretek Systems in cooperation with the County, Virginia Tech and the U.S. Department of Labor, was announced. Its aim is to develop information technology workers from among welfare recipients, the unemployed or others traditionally consigned to relatively low-paying service sector jobs with little or no prospects for advancement. With the creation of an entity that would institutionalize and expand programs such as Tekaid, the committee envisions a method of helping fill the workforce gap and providing employment opportunities to members of the community who might not otherwise be in a position to avail themselves of those opportunities. The committee theorized that the Foundation could be modeled something along the lines of Reston Interfaith, with the coordinated effort of its members providing the training and support that would enable its students and participants to obtain and retain jobs.

2. Establish a program to institutionalize life-long learning (e.g., the Reston Life-long Learning Experience, perhaps employing an acronym such as RELIVE) linking pre-school, traditional academia both public and private, including secondary, graduate and post-graduate programs, vocational and technical training and retraining, alternative learning centers, libraries and other educational facilities and programs

We would emphasize that linkages with and among non-traditional educational providers, such as Reston Community Center�s Senior Academy and Technology Center (RCC.com), be established with schools, libraries and other educational providers, including businesses. Many of the elements of a program such as RELIVE are already in place; what is lacking is a network of coordination and cooperation among potential participants.

3. Establish an organization comprised of businesses, the Greater Reston Chamber of Commerce, government agencies, civic associations, and other interested organizations to monitor, revise, develop, and implement policies and programs to maintain Reston as a major business center, to advocate on its behalf, and otherwise to promote the interests of the community

The Community Organization Relationships and Communication Committees both make similar recommendations. We recognize the need for an entity to perform functions heretofore performed largely by Reston�s developer. However, those functions will change as the community evolves; hence the recommendation that this responsibility be shared by entities with differing interests in the community�s evolution.

4. Implement the concept of the Reston Electronic Village

We recommend initially the linkage of existing community resources to establish an electronic village and subsequently the expansion of those resources to include new aspects, such as Reston e-commerce or a Reston Intranet. We note that the community has among the highest incidence of computer usage in the nation. We further note that, when it was introduced relatively early in the deliberations of the Task Force, the business community support for this concept was based in considerable measure on their sense of its educational benefits. One of the better known examples of the concept is that established in Blacksburg, VA, home of Virginia Tech, a model we would not just emulate but expand, using the technological resources of the local business community, rather than an academic institution, as the potential catalyst.

5. Education-specfic recommendations

  • Establish Community Resource Groups for educational support
  • Explore alternatives for more effective approaches to instruction and uses of time for learning
  • Support teacher education and professional development (higher standards, teacher collaboration, internships, continuing education, etc.)
  • Support smaller class sizes, especially in early primary grades
  • Establish a Reston collaborative campus
  • Improve collaboration and coordination among Reston-area schools and FCPS
  • Support facility investment and reinvestment in schools and libraries

We have grouped these recommendations, all of which relate more directly to education issues, to facilitate their review. We recommend establishing a Reston Partnership Council, consisting of all schools and business/other partners in Reston, to share ideas and collaborate on programs. We strongly encourage and promote substantive parental (community) participation in supporting the social, emotional and academic growth of children (and we note a school board recommendation to the same effect July 23, 1998). We recommend enhanced accountability of schools to the community and note Dr. Domenech�s (letter of September 9, 1998) and the School Board�s (1998-99 Division-wide strategic targets) support of that concept. We believe the enhancement of schools as resources to the community comports with existing County plan language and policy.

We encourage continued examination of the FCPS 21st Century Schools Initiative � "Success by Eight," multi-age grouping, capping of early primary grades at 25, year-round schools, etc. Examination of other structural and/or programmatic innovations, such as after-school programs or later starts for middle and high schools, should also be continued. 

We recommend programs such as the Professional Development Academy at Sunrise Valley Elementary School (a partnership with Marymount University), which effectively decreases pupil:teacher ratios and provides opportunities for worthwhile internships and educational teaching opportunities. Expansion of such programs could be a function of the Reston Partnership Council.

 We encourage the participation by 4-year and community colleges, continuing education providers and employer training organizations, in the establishment of a Reston Collaborative Campus, enabling students in the Reston area to engage in distance learning applications as well as study on site. We believe this could assist in � indeed be a vital component of � implementation of the Electronic Village and RELIVE programs. It would also expand the concept of community, enabling virtual university(ies) that could establish a Reston presence and that could include Reston as part of their virtual campuses.

We also support specific CIP funding for renovations and renewals of South Lakes High School, Hunters Woods Elementary School, Dogwood Elementary School and Forest Edge Elementary School. We also recommend that the community advocate for additional resources for renovation and expansion of Reston Regional Library, consistent with the recently adopted amendment to the County plan. Finally, we encourage full utilization of schools as virtual community centers, which, as noted previously, we believe to be consistent with existing County policy.

6. Promote the vitality of Dulles as a key component of regional economic development

Proximity to an international airport is routinely cited by corporations seeking to relocate or to establish new locations as one of the key considerations to be weighed in site selection. The Reston community should support infrastructure improvements that ensure full utilization of the airport and should advocate the establishment and maintenance of policies that facilitate its use; this includes rail to Dulles, roads and other transportation improvements, as detailed in the Transportation Committee report, as well as parking, terminal and similar improvements.

V. Conclusion

It has been said that language is the vessel into which the wine of meaning must be poured. For the language in this and the accompanying reports to be made truly meaningful, it needs input from the greater Reston community, especially from those of us who will be implementing some of these recommendations and experiencing their effect. The efforts of the Reston 2000 Task force to date have benefited abundantly from the wisdom of experience; what we need more of is the vision, the passion, and the vigor of youth.

While there will probably be little disagreement among current and future members of the Reston community over the need for a quality educational system and for maintaining a high level of employment opportunities, there undoubtedly will be differing views over how to achieve these objectives and where lines should be drawn when competing interests come into play. That is as it should be, and we urge that the dialogue embarked upon by the Reston 2000 Task Force continue after the community has had the opportunity to consider these reports, and beyond, as it undertakes implementation of some of the recommendations.




Source: Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments   Appendix D   Resources  

Many of the documents cited in the body of the report or relied upon by the Committee in its preparation are available electronically, and the URL of such documents, as well as related materials, is provided. Copies of other documents are available as part of the record of the Reston 2000 Task Force, to be maintained by the office of Robert B. Dix, Jr., Supervisor, Hunter Mill District.

Presentation, Anne Pickford Cahill, Supervisor, Economic and Demographic Research, Office of Management and Budget, Fairfax County, March 2, 1998

Presentation, Stephen Fuller and Roger Stough, professors of public policy, George Mason University, March 16, 1998

Presentation, Douglas Rice, Director of Secondary Programs, and Jane Wilson, Minority Student Achievement Programs, Area III, Fairfax County Public Schools, March 25, 1998

Presentation, Georgia Graves, President, and Tracey White, Executive Director, Greater Reston Chamber of Commerce, April 13, 1998

Presentation, Robert J. O�Neill, Fairfax County Executive, June 15, 1998 and Proposed Commercial Revitalization Incentives, Fairfax County Department of Planning and Zoning, June 29, 1998

Presentation, Nancy Larson, Director, New Town Publications,

July 22, 1998

 Fairfax County Economic Index (comprised of a coincident index and a leading index - provides a framework for analyzing the strength of the current County economy and for forecasting future economic changes) and Fairfax County Economic Indicators (reports on the County's current economic climate, as well as selected economic indicators on the state and national levels). Monthly reports available at http://www.co.fairfax.va.us/comm/economic/economic.htm

Fairfax County Virginia FY 1999 Advertised Budget Plan, available at http://www.co.fairfax.va.us/gov/omb

Remarks, Robert G. Templin, Jr., Virginia Center for Innovative Technology, March 10, 1998

 "Toward a New Economy: Merging Heritage with Vision in the Greater Washington Region," a study of the Information and Communications Cluster of Industries, sponsored by The Potomac Knowledgeway, PricewaterhouseCoopers, Hale and Dorr LLP, The Greater Washington Initiative and Virginia�s Center for Innovative Technology (available at http://knowledgeway.org.)

Cairncross, Frances, The Death of Distance: How the Communication Revolution Will Change Our Lives, Harvard Business School Press, 1997

Remarks, William E. Kennard, chairman, Federal Communications Committee, July 27, 1998 to National Association of Regulatory Commissioners, Seattle, Washington and June 25, 1998 to the U.S conference of Mayors, Reno, Nevada (available at http://www.fcc.gov)

Falling Through the Net II: New Data on the Digital Divide, report of the National Information and Telecommunications Administration analyzing telephone and computer penetration rates in the United States,

July 1998, available at http://www.ntia.doc.gov/ntiahome/net2/

Fairfax County Chamber of Commerce, position on Workforce and Education, available at http://fccc.org/fccc.html ("eye on government")

Greater Reston Chamber of Commerce, Legislative Papers, positions on transportation and BPOL tax, available at http://www.restonchamber.org/legpapers.html

Growing Pains, Washington Post series on development in the metropolitan area, available at http://washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/local/longterm/library/growth/

 The Virginia Strategy: Prosperity Into the New Century, statement of Goals, Objectives, Strategies and Barriers to Achieving Goals, Task Force and Advisory Committee to Governor James Gilmore and Secretary of commerce and Trade Barry DuVal, August 12, 1998

"Education, Transportation and Fiscal Health: The Key to Virginia�s Future," Virginia Issues and Answers, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Fall, 1997)

 Fairfax County Virginia: the Internet Capital, release of the Fairfax County Economic Development Authority for the 1998 World Congress on Information Technology, June 1998

Fairfax County Economic Development Authority, Demographic and Economic Characteristics, Quality of Life, and Market Descriptions, available at http://www.eda.co.fairfax.va.us/fceda/

Fairfax County Comprehensive Plan, Adopted Policy Plan, pp. 125 � 34 (Education, Higher Education and Libraries)

The Challenge Index, Jay Matthews, Washington Post Magazine, March 22, 1998

Prisoners of Time, Report of the National Education Commission on Time and Learning, April, 1994

Report of the Fairfax County School Board Task Force to Study High School Opening Times to the Committee on Instruction and Policy Review, June 29, 1998

State of the Schools address to the Fairfax County School Board, Dr. Daniel A. Domenech, Superintendent, June 4, 1998

 Fairfax County School Board Statement of Mission and Priorities, FY 1998 through FY 2000, available at http://www.fcps.k12.va.us/schlbd/prior.htm

Fairfax County Public Schools, 1998-99 Divisionwide Strategic Targets, approved July 9, 1998, available at http://www.fcps.k12.va.us/news/targets.htm

21st Century Schools Initiative, "Success by Eight," Fairfax County Public Schools program involving reconfiguration of time, staffing and elementary grade levels, available at http://www.fcps.k12.va.us/21sch.htm

Good Schools - Good for Everyone, 1997 Community Accountability Report, Fairfax County Public Schools

 Web Sites of Interest to Educators, maintained by the National Association of Secondary School Principals, available at http://nassp.org/websites.htm

What Makes a Good School, Special Report, Time magazine, pp. 62 � 96, October 27, 1997

Education Review, special supplements to the Washington Post,

April 5, 1998 and July 26, 1998

Fairfax County Public Library Home Page, available at http://www.co.fairfax.va.us/library/homepage.htm

Fairfax County Public Library Planning documents: Excerpt from preliminary planning estimates for long range planning needs for Reston Regional Library renovation and expansion, Keeping Pace FY90 � FY97, and Community Survey Results, November 1997

Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority, 1997 Annual Report (pp. 10-14)

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